Document Type : Mini-Review
Louisiana Tech University, Collage of Engineering & Science, Ruston, Louisiana, USA
Louisiana Tech University, Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Science, Ruston, Louisiana, USA
Lutein is a carotenoid with reported anticancer, antibacterial, anticancer, antineurodegenerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition, this bioactive phytocompound as a potential antioxidant has beneficial effects on cardiovascular, cognitive function, and eye health. Preserving neural efficiency, verbal fluency, and efficient learning have been identified for this metabolite. In the case of cardioprotective effect, lutein can increase nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and micro RNA (miR)-200a expressions. Lutein as a carotenoid is a natural lipid-soluble pigment, and its clinical application needs a new efficient formulation design suitable for physiological conditions. Nanoencapsulation of lutein by nanomaterials in different morphologies can ameliorate its therapeutic capacity by increasing bioavailability. This mini-review presents critical knowledge gaps in the clinical application of lutein and offers potential avenues for future research, particularly based on micro and nano aspects. In this regard, literatures were analyzed systematically from PubMed, which were published from 1994 to 2023. This mini-review showed that nanocarriers can increase the bioavailability of lutein in the liver and plasma compared to pristine lutein.
- A combination of lutein with conventional antibiotics such as azithromycin can hinder and eradicate biofilm formation in DFU caused by aeruginosa.
- Lutein inhibits the degradation of rhodopsin and causes the survival rate of photoreceptors.
- A low risk of coronary heart disease has been found for high blood concentrations of lutein metabolite.
- Lutein in combination therapy with sodium valproate decreased serumTNF-α level, oxidative stress in hippocampal homogenate.
- Nanocarriers with unique physicochemical properties in the nanoscale can ameliorate the bioavailability of lutein in physiological conditions.
- Increased level of lutein in the plasma and liver has been indicated for drug delivery systems in the nanoscale.