Novel formulations of Kaempferol and its monosaccharide derivatives for healing cancers and microbial infections

Document Type : Mini-Review


1 Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Unit of Genomics Research, Digestive Diseases Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran



Natural compounds isolated from plant species have a potential pharmacological capability and is now regarded to be an alternative therapeutic agent. Flavonoid metabolites have exhibited significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. Kaempferol and its monosaccharide derivatives such as kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol 7-O-glucoside as a well-studied bioactive compound have shown remarkable therapeutic activities. As a major therapeutic limitation, this plant-derived metabolite is soluble in ethanol and slightly soluble in aqueous solvents. This property can hinder the clinical application of kaempferol, as recent studies have tried to discovery effective micro and nano formations. In this way, this mini-review has discussed efficacy of these novel formulations in recent years. This study has shown micro and nanocarriers can improve bioavailability property of kaempferol and its monosaccharide derivative derivatives.

Graphical Abstract

Novel formulations of Kaempferol and its monosaccharide derivatives for healing cancers and microbial infections


  • The main barrier for the clinical application of kaempferol is its low solubility in aqueous solutions.
  • Nanoformulation of kaempferol using organic polymers such as chitosan has demonstrated a significant anti-quorum sensing activity against violaceum.
  • Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside showed poor anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities compared to kaempferol.
  • The major antibiofilm mechanism of kaempferol was reduction in fibrous protrusions on the surface of aureus.
  • Nanoformulations of AgNPs-kaempferol-hydrocortisone, production of ROS and lipid peroxidation were the main antibacterial mechanisms.


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