Document Type : Mini-Review
Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Quinine sulfate, the main active compound from quinine extract, has been applied as an old drug under the category of a limited over-the-counter drug. This compound is a medication used commonly to treat malaria. This includes the treatment of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum which is resistant to chloroquine when artesunate is not available. In addition, quinine and its derivatives showed antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Microbial resistance to quinine occurs in certain areas of the world. In addition, quinine can affect kidney function, hematology, cardiovascular function, and liver function as the major side effects. Novel biocompatible micro and Nano formulations are needed to overcome these disadvantages. The present mini-review has tried to address these formulations considering their antimicrobial activities.
- DNA synthesis of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria can be inhibited by quinine and its derivatives.
- Quinine can increases the production of IFN-α cytokines against viruses.
- Changes in the cell membrane permeability, accumulation of ROS, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential have been recognized for some quinoline derivatives.