Document Type : Narrative Review
Nanobiotechnology Department, Faculty of Innovative Science and Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
Vice-Chancellor, School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills P.O., Kottayam, Kerala 686 560, India
School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills P.O., Kottayam, Kerala 686 560, India
Opening up a new avenue for smart design of nanomaterials by antibacterial agents such as antibiotics, metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), and polymeric materials to achieve high efficiency against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria as a vital affair in the case of chronic bacterial infections specifically diabetic foot ulcer, pneumonia, and pseudomonas infections. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) NPs with a biocompatible and porous surface can be applied as a novel, efficient carriers for loading other antibacterial compounds having low biocompatibility or ineffective antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Recently, modification or functionalization of silica NPs by conventional antibiotics, metal/metal oxide NPs and biodegradable polymers have been investigated to increase the bactericidal and mechanical properties for wound dressings and bone cement. However, there is no clear comprehension of the advantages and disadvantages of these drug delivery systems, which this review has tried to address.
- The mechanism of functionalizing silica NPs is the critical factor to be considered while applying it to physiological conditions.
- Green approaches to synthesize silica NPs loading antibiotic would be a very effective solution for the silent pandemic of antibiotic resistance.
- Silica NPs have free silanol groups, which make them amenable for modifications.
- The porous nature of MSNs contributes to a higher payload of drugs.
- Surface modification of MSNs by biocompatible polymers such as PEG is more likely to be a suitable strategy.