Main distinctions between tocosome and nano-liposome as drug delivery systems: A scientific and technical point of view

Document Type : Letters to the Editor


1 Australasian Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (ANNI), 8054 Monash University LPO, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia Supreme Pharmatech Co. LTD, 399/90-95 Moo 13 Kingkaew Rd. Soi 25/1, T. Rachateva, A. Bangplee, Samutprakan 10540, Thailand

2 Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran Nanobiotechnology Department, Faculty of Innovative Science and Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran



Some of the currently available encapsulation systems, including liposomes, nanoliposomes, and solid lipid nanoparticles, have already been approved to be used in the pharmaceutical, food, textile, and cosmetic markets. These systems have proven to be useful for the encapsulation, controlled release, targeting drugs, vaccines (including Covid-19 vaccines), and other bioactive compounds in vitro and in vivo. The most recently invented encapsulation system, known as "tocosome", is formulated employing two derivatives of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Although tocosomes are somehow similar to lipid vesicles, they possess exceptional characteristics mainly due to the presence of unique ingredients in their structures. There have been ambiguities in the scientific literature regarding the differences between tocosomes, liposomes, and nanoliposomes. The present article aims to provide brief scientific explanations in a clear way to highlight differences between the mentioned drug carriers.

Graphical Abstract

Main distinctions between tocosome and nano-liposome as drug delivery systems: A scientific and technical point of view


  • Tocosome is a novel drug delivery system which can be used for the encapsulation of different bioactive compounds.
  • The main ingredients of tocosome are alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (TP) and di-alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (T2P).
  • Different procedures, such as Mozafari method, can be used for the manufacture of tocosomes in small or large scales.
  • The mentioned method does not require utilization of toxic solvents, detergents or harsh procedures for the manufacture of carrier systems.
  • The tocosomal formulation prepared using Mozafari method showed long-term stability and ideal drug release properties.


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