Document Type : Narrative Review
Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Klebsiella pneumoniae as a main opportunistic pathogen is a common cause of health-care-associated bacterial infections, which has shown high levels of drug resistance specifically in hospitalized patients. These bacteria are well-known for their ability to produce biofilm. The increase in the emergence of multidrug-resistance bacterial strains among hospital isolates of K. pneumoniae has reduced the efficiency of the treatment of infections resulted from these bacteria. Beta-lactamase enzymes such as AmpC enzymes are one of the strategies of antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae. In this way, this review has tried to discuss the advances and challenges of phenotypic diagnosis of AmpC enzymes and the identification of ACT and FOX genes among clinical isolates isolated from patients. Gram-negative bacteria with AmpC β-lactamases can resist to several antibiotics including cephalosporins, aminopenicillins, ureidopenicillins, carboxypenicillins, monobactams, and cephalosporins. The existence of beta-lactamase genes ACT and FOX is one of the effective reasons for drug resistance in hospital strains of K. pneumoniae. According to the results of this study, control infection and prevent the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, there is a need for careful management in drug administration and identification of resistant isolates.
- Antibiotic resistance in the various strains of pneumoniae can be complicated issue in health-care-associated bacterial infections.
- Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria with a wide spectrum are resistant to the antibiotic aztreonam.
- Bacteria of pneumoniae can resist a wide range of antibiotics causing health-care-associated bacterial infections, particularly in hospitalized patients.
- The existence of beta-lactamase genes ACT and FOX is one of the effective reasons for drug resistance.