Document Type : Narrative Review
Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Drug resistance in microorganisms, specifically bacteria pathogens, is a serious threat to patients worldwide. Multidrug-resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of conventional antibiotics is the main hindrance to treating patients admitted to hospital. In this case, the increased emergence of multidrug-resistance mechanisms among Klebsiella pneumoniae nosocomial infections has limited the therapeutic options for treating bacterial infections such as intra-abdominal, urinary tract, and pneumonia infections. The beta-lactamase enzymes in these bacteria, as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), are the primary defense of gram-negative bacteria against a wide range of beta-lactam antibiotics. This review aimed to evaluate the role of MOX genes in the antibiotic resistance of K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients.
- The mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria should be indicated to choose the best option for treating hospitalized patients.
- Active drug efflux, inactivating an antibiotic, modifying an antibiotic target, and limiting the uptake of an antibiotic are the primary mechanisms for antibiotic resistance.
- The resistance of pneumoniae strains to beta-lactams due to the presence of the AmpC beta-lactamase enzyme is one of the most critical challenges in the clinical sector.