Conventional and novel methods for the preparation of micro and nanoliposomes

Document Type : Narrative Review


1 Nanobiotechnology Department, Faculty of Innovative Science and Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran

2 Head of the Department of Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, UGC-Basic Science Research Faculty Fellow, SGB Amravati University, Amravati- 444 602, Maharashtra, India Department of Microbiology, Nicolaus Copernicus University,

3 Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Czech Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Palacky University in Olomouc, Olomouc, 78371, Czech Republic

4 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

5 Australasian Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (ANNI), 8054 Monash University LPO, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia Supreme Pharmatech Co. LTD, 399/90-95 Moo 13 Kingkaew Rd. Soi 25/1, T. Rachateva, A. Bangplee, Samutprakan 10540, Thailand


Liposomes mainly comprise an aqueous core surrounded by a lipid bilayer, akin to cellular membranes. The encapsulation, loading, and release properties of therapeutic agents in both, the core and lipid bilayer can be prominently affected by the preparative processes for liposome which include hydration of lipid thin films, detergent removal, solvent injection, reverse phase evaporation, emulsion, microfluidic methods (micro hydrodynamic focusing, microfluidic droplets and pulsed jet flow microfluidics), among others. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages for loading various hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Therefore, selecting an appropriate method for the synthesis of micro- and nano liposome is a critical issue, particularly on the large-scale commercial enterprise. Herein, the main aim of this review is to present and compare the relative advantages of conventional and novel preparative methods of liposome in view of the emerging trend in their utilization. As the main conclusion, a combination of methods, for instance, supercritical fluids (SCFs) and microfluidic approaches can be employed along with emulsion method to synthesize micro and nanoliposomes encapsulated lipophilic drugs.

Graphical Abstract

Conventional and novel methods for the preparation of micro and nanoliposomes


  • The efficiency of the liposomal preparation method is dependent on their therapeutic applications.
  • A combination of methods can be applied to prepare micro and nanoliposomes encapsulated hydrophilic or lipophilic drugs.
  • Future studies should be focus on achieving appricpiate attributes of encapsulation, loading, and release properties for micro and nanoformulations of therapeutic agents.


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