Synergistic combinations of metal, metal oxide, or metalloid nanoparticles plus antibiotics against resistant and non-resistant bacteria

Document Type : Narrative Review


1 Nanobiotechnology Department, Faculty of Innovative Science and Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran

2 Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa Wellman Centre for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA Department of Dermatology, Harvard

3 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, South America, Colombia

4 Chembiotech Laboratories, Advanced Science and Technology Institute, Tenbury Wells, WR15 8FF, UK

5 Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


The emergence of drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics is a major challenge to global public health. Therefore, improved and more effective antibacterial agents are urgently needed as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Nanotechnology-based approaches can take advantage of the nano–bacteria interface to improve microbial killing both in vitro in and in vivo. In this way, modified metal or metal oxide nanoparticles combined with antibiotics could be a novel class of antibacterial agents with synergistic effects against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis and functionalization of these nanomaterials, and considers their advantages and disadvantages.

Graphical Abstract

Synergistic combinations of metal, metal oxide, or metalloid nanoparticles plus antibiotics against resistant and non-resistant bacteria


  • The ROS production is main antibacterial and anticancer mechanism of metal or metal oxide NPs.
  • Functionalization of metal, metal oxide, and metalloid NPs by biocompatible polymers to obtain low cytotoxicity.
  • Antibiotics and anticancer drugs can be used to modify metal, metal oxide, and metalloid NPs.


Main Subjects

Open Access

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Volume 1, Issue 1
May 2022
Pages 1-9
  • Receive Date: 23 April 2022
  • Revise Date: 01 May 2022
  • Accept Date: 01 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 01 May 2022